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The evolution of a species is linked to the environment.Adaptation is a continuous response to the environment by changeable species.( Adaptive radiation is the evolution from an unspecialised ancestral stock of many different species that adapt to a variety of ecological roles (see books)).
Find out about the latest evidence in our What’s Hot in Human Origins section.
 Natural selection, gene flow and random genetic drift (the random change in gene combinations with each generation) drive evolution, resulting in a change in gene frequencies within populations .
 Adaptation is genetically based and so leads to phenotypic changes that accumulate over time;  Speciation (species formation) evolves through reproductive isolation and (genetic) divergence of populations;  Genetic changes through natural selection lead to new species and eventually new taxa .
The layers that contain fossils and archeological clues can be dated by more than a dozen techniques that use the basic principles of physics, chemistry, and Earth sciences.
Some techniques can even estimate the age of the ancient teeth and bones directly.