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However, neither Myers nor Briggs was formally educated in the discipline of psychology, and both were self-taught in the field of psychometric testing. Hay, who was then personnel manager for a large Philadelphia bank and who went on to start one of the first successful personnel consulting firms in the United States.From Hay, Myers learned rudimentary test construction, scoring, validation, and statistical methods.Supporters of the projective approach to personality assessment are critical of the structured approach because defense mechanisms may distort responses to the closed items on structured tests.The most notable addition of Myers and Briggs ideas to Jung's original thought is their concept that a given type's fourth letter (J or P) indicates a person's preferred extraverted function, which is the dominant function for extraverted types and the auxiliary function for introverted types.Jung theorized that the dominant function acts alone in its preferred world: exterior for extraverts and interior for introverts.The remaining three functions, he suggested, operate together in the opposite orientation.Briggs's daughter, Isabel Briggs Myers, added to her mother's typological research, which she would progressively take over entirely.
Myers' work attracted the attention of Henry Chauncey, head of the Educational Testing Service.
Briggs embarked on a project of reading biographies, and subsequently developed a typology wherein she proposed four temperaments: meditative (or thoughtful), spontaneous, executive, and social.
After the English translation of Jung's book Psychological Types was published in 1923 (first published in German in 1921), she recognized that Jung's theory was similar to, but went far beyond, her own.
The responses to items are considered "closed" and interpreted according to the theory of the test constructers in scoring.
This is contrary to the "projective" approach to personality assessment advocated by psychodynamic theorists such as Carl Jung.